Articles, DRUGS

Hydrochlorothiazide – Uses, Dosage, Side Effects & Interactions

With the world changing constantly there has been newer forms of disorders that have crept up into the scene. These new disorders are often incurred owing to the constant hustle of the new more improved and urbanized world where each person is busy trying to complete their busy schedule and on time quota which is exactly why looking after or taking care of oneself is indeed a scarce affair right now. To top that off, certain disorders have now clubbed with the previous common ones bringing up new problems to the scene. However, much like the people and their disorders newer medical attention is coming up where these advanced medicines are now tackling more than one problem. These medicines powerful in nature are often a handy companion for sickly days and one such medication would be the hydrochlorothiazide.

Hydrochlorothiazide tablets are diuretic in nature where it tackles problems like high blood pressure by reducing the salt water content in our body thereby stabilizing high blood pressure problems. Sodium and water content in the body in levels too high can be dire in situations and thus should be effectively treated using a drug that can kill two birds using one single stone. Hydrochlorothiazide is basically the generic name for the drug and can often be obtained through its drug names Hydrodiuril, microzide, ezide etc. this drug especially caters to the water content in your body along with the salt mixed in it that handsomely clears your system of the salt water and in turn allows your body to deal with high blood pressure problems.

Edema is a condition in your body where excess fluid gets retained into the cavities and tissues in your body, yet another segment where you can find the use of this drug to be really helpful where it prevents salt water absorption and handsomely cures problems.



To start off before we move on to the benefits, let’s look into the mechanism of reducing blood pressure in your system by lessening the salt water content in your body. Blood pressure is only high in occasions when the free flowing blood feels obstruction in its path thereby causing a pressure situation in your system leading to the rise in blood pressure which can be detrimental if ignored for too long including heart attack risks. Now the kidney works by storing the fluids in your system and the more the fluid, the more will be the pressure in your blood which is exactly why fluid retention in your system should be lessened. A little mix of sodium and potassium ensures that the kidney performs its job well but too much sodium in your system can hinder the job of fluid relief which is when once again fluid retention leading to high blood pressure causes the problem.

  • Fluid Relief: the problem and the working mechanism being sorted out beforehand, here in this point we shall talk about exactly how the medicinal drug works. Hydrochlorothiazide uses its diuretic nature to relief your body of the absorbed and retained salt and water in the form of frequent urination and thus helps you restore normal blood pressure in your system.
  • Edema: high blood pressure control is not the only assistance this drug provides for you as edema, a condition too can be listed under the cured list for this prescription medicine. Edema is a condition where the body retains excess fluid in your system thereby increasing dire side effects. The drug hydrochlorothiazide can help you treat edema too.
  • Reduce Cardiac arrest Causes: cardiac arrest may occur in the case of high blood pressure or significant edema causes. Using this medication can actually help you contain cardiac arrest situations.
  • Carefree Kidneys: fluid retention occurs in the kidneys where too much sodium water accumulating can cause subsidiary infection or worse kidney stones. Water absorption and retention for days can also cause bloating or the kidney functions to go wrong which is why in this situation we can keep our kidney at its best by using this medicine to relief water retention in kidney.
  • Cirrhosis of the Liver: cirrhosis of the liver is a condition is a condition in which the liver gets scarred badly. Through this medication one can also treat cirrhosis of the liver thereby ensuring your internal organs are working perfectly fine.


Before the doctor prescribes this medication to you, there are certain regulations and facts that needs to be sorted out much like your age, weight  and medical requirement based on which the medication dose for the patient should be evaluated. Laboratory results are important too when evaluating the dosage unit.

One can obtain this drug in its pill form or in the form of an oral suspension based on what you have been prescribed by your doctor. If it’s in the form of a pill you can easily just use a glass of water to gulp it down. It is of your best interest if you do not break or slice a pill into half unless prescribed by the doctor since the inactive ingredients in pill immediately increases overdosing risks. If in the form of oral suspension, you can take the measurement dose from the doctor and strictly abide by the measurement every day. Shake the bottle well before use and of course always measure your doses using a measuring cup or a measuring spoon.

Even if you feel the positive results are showing even before you completed your medication course, continue with that medication until the course is fully over.


Your hydrochlorothiazide dose will be prescribed to you strictly by the doctor which is something that you should strictly abide by throughout the medication course. Your dose will be estimated by your age, weight and even your test results if any.

For starters, the beginners who are new to this category of drugs should take it easy by going in for smaller initial size doses. With time and on the doctor’s approval you can slowly increase the dose. Also, for the geriatric or pediatric doses, always make sure you are keeping the doses at a flexible rate which would help you deal with side effects in a much more stable way.

The initial dose for an adult in case of edema or hypertension can be kept at hydrodiuril 25mg which can be increased up to 100 mg but only on emergency situations strictly under the doctor’s recommendation. This is a daily dose which can either be taken all at once one time a day or the doses can be segregated into twice a day equal shares. The maintenance dose can be kept at hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg. for the maintenance dose you can easily take 50mg as a daily dose twice a day.

For pediatric doses, children above 12 years old can use hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg as an initial dose and for children below the infant level, keep the doses minimum starting from 1.5 mg to possibly 3 mg.

The  highest dose for this medicine is a full 100 mg which is extremely high and may cause detrimental side effects.


Precautions to this medicine would obviously be briefed to you by your doctor but in case he missed out on a few, here is the breakdown of the most important points one should keep in mind while going through the course of this medicine.

It is always important that you furnish a full list of your medical history to your doctor prior to the prescription since many prior medications might react with this once you start the course. Also, if you are scheduled for a surgery, especially a heart surgery, make sure you let your surgeon or surgery prep person know about your medication list.

Usually pregnant women are told to avoid this medicine unless it is of paramount importance that they continue with this medication. The drug may pass on to the breast milk and may indirectly pass on to the child thereby causing side effects in the newborn. Along with the new born child even the older people should be kept at constant supervision if prescribed this medicine as it may highly cause adverse side effects in them.


Drug interactions usually mean your prescription drug reacting to or mixing up with some other prescription drugs that may remain in your system thereby causing counter reactions that often are not helpful in nature. To prevent drug interactions either research on which drugs interact the most with your medicine and carefully list down your medical history to your doctor.

Usually allergy medications of any kind react with these medicines as does medicines for high blood pressure control. If you are using anything for your heart or liver problems, consult your doctor regarding that as well. Hydrochlorothiazide drug interactions can be highly detrimental in nature.


Side effect to any drug is not at all a symptom of good health but at times these side effects too have a logical reasoning behind them. For the beginners the side effects may occur due to the introduction of this new foreign substance that has been induced into their system whereas for some this may be a form of allergic reaction invoked by the incompatibility. Sometimes these side effects are quite natural and negligible in nature whereas for some these side effects may cause more havoc than the actual illness.

    • Abdominal Pain and Urine Trouble: abdominal pain can be a form of side effect with trouble in urination tagging below. While passing urine you may feel a burning or a tingling sensation along with cloudy urine. Some foul smell may persist too along with it.
    • Gum Bleeding  and Dry Mouth: periodontal problems is yet one of the hydrochlorothiazide side effects where gum bleeding can even be backed by excessive gum pain and drying of mouth.
    • Skin Problems: skin liaisons may occur like scaling of skin or uneven rash with redness and swelling, skin irritation and change in color of skin complexion. Along with this joint swelling and stiffness may occur too.
      Increased thirst and frequent Urination: Because this is a diuretic medicine in nature, it may often cause frequent urination as a method of fluid removal from your system and as a side effect increased thirst may persist. Along with this increase in hunger may arise too.
    • Bloating: Ever since the water or fluid retention problem has begun, you could feel your body bloating a little bit each day starting from your toes to your finger joints. This is purely blamed on the water retention and can often be a side effect to the medicine if it doesn’t work properly on your body.
    • Stool Problems: Change in consistency or color of stool may occur too. Stool may become clayey in consistency with darkening of its color. This is quite a common side effect and should not bother you.

Bad Breath and Weight Gain:

    Persistent bad breath may also be a concern but one of the unique side effects to this can be the probable weight gain. Where most of the drugs cause weight loss, a side effect to this drug may actually add a few pound to you.

The thing with our body is often one disorder leads to another and a side effect or a side reaction jumps in and adds more trouble. Water retention in your system can not only cause kidney stones but can also cause high blood pressure which in return can cause higher risks of cardiac arrest. This is why medicines like hydrochlorothiazide help you deal with multiple problems all at once.